Human PSA ELISA Kit
Catalog No. : L5E1003
This immunoassay kit allows for the in vitro quantitative determination of Total PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen) in human serum, plasma and other biological fluids.
PSA is a 32 kDa single-chain, glycoprotein serine protease with a chymotrypsin-like specificity produced by the secretory epithelium of the prostate gland1. PSA is normally secreted into the seminal fluid and plays a functional role in the cleavage of the seminal vesicle proteins and the liquefaction of the seminal coagulum2. Only low levels of PSA are normally present in the blood stream, and increasing serum concentrations indicate prostatic pathology, including benign prostatic hyperplasia and cancer of the prostate. Determination of PSA is now widely used for detection and management of patients with prostatic cancer and considered as the superior serological marker for cancer of the prostate3.
PSA has been shown to form stable complexes with different antiproteases and the dominating portion of PSA in patient serum occurs in complex with α1-antichymotrypsin (PSA-ACT)4. However there are large variations in the relation between Free PSA and PSA-ACT complex between different individuals. Studies have also indicated that the proportion of Free PSA is higher in benign prostatic disease as compared to prostatic cancer5. The antibodies in the PSA EIA have been carefully evaluated and selected to give the same molar response for Free PSA as for the PSA-ACT complex7. The PSA EIA thus gives a true “total” PSA value independent of the individual variations of free and ACT-complexed PSA.
Healthy males are expected to have PSA values below 4ug/ml. However, as PSA levels increase with age, it is suggested to adjust the age-specific reference ranges in order to increase the sensitivity in younger men and increase the specificity in older men..
The LINC-BIO PSA ELISA is a solid-phase, non-competitive immunoassay based on the direct sandwich technique. Calibrator, controls and patient samples are incubated together with anti-PSA monoclonal antibody coated micro titer strips. PSA present in calibrators, controls or samples is absorbed to the microtiter wells during the incubation. The strips are then washed and incubated with horseradish peroxidase (HPR) labeled anti-PSA McAb. After washing , a TMB (3,3’5, 5′ tetramethyl-benzidine) substrate solution is added to each well and the enzyme reaction is allowed to proceed. During the enzyme reaction a blue colour will develop if antigen is present. The intensity of the colour is proportional to the amount of PSA antigen present in the samples.
The enzyme-substrate reaction is terminated by the addition of a sulphuric acid solution and the color change is measured spectrophotometrically at a wavelength of 450 nm ± 2 nm. Calibration curves are constructed for each assay by plotting absorbance value versus the concentration for each calibrator. The concentration of PSA in the samples is then determined by comparing the O.D. of the samples to the calibration curve.
Materials and components
Assay plate 96T/plate
Calibrators 5 x 500ul
With concentrations of 0 ng/ml，4 ng/ml，10 ng/ml，25 ng/ml，50 ng/ml。
PSA-HRP conjugate 1 x 10ml
Wash Buffer (20 x concentrate) 1 x 30ml
Substrate Solution 1 x 10ml
Stop Solution 1 x 5ml
Sample collection and storage
Serum – Use a serum separator tube (SST) and allow samples to clot for 30 minutes before centrifugation for 15 minutes at approximately 1000 x g. Remove serum and assay immediately.
Plasma – Collect plasma using EDTA or heparin as an anticoagulant. Centrifuge samples for 15 minutes at 1000 x g at 2 – 8° C within 30 minutes of collection.
Other biological fluids – Remove particulates by centrifugation and assay immediately。
Note: Serum, plasma, and cell culture supernatant samples to be used within 7 days may be stored at 2-8 ° C, otherwise samples must stored at -20° C (≤ 3 months) or -80° C (≤ 6 months) to avoid loss of bioactivity and contamination. Avoid freeze-thaw cycles. When performing the assay slowly bring samples to room temperature.
It is recommended that all samples be assayed in duplicate.
DO NOT USE HEAT-TREATED SPECIMENS.
Allow all reagents to reach room temperature. All the reagents should be mixed thoroughly by gently swirling before pipetting. Avoid foaming. Arrange and label required number of strips. Prepare all reagents, working standards and samples as directed in the previous sections.
- Add 40 uL of Calibrators, Blank, or Sample per well. Cover with the adhesive strip. Incubate for 30 minutes at 37° C.
- Aspirate the liquid of each well and wash. repeating the process five times.
Wash by filling each well with Wash Buffer (350 uL) using a squirt bottle, multi-channel pipette, manifold dispenser or autowasher. Complete removal of liquid at each step is essential to good performance. After the last wash, remove any remaining Wash Buffer by aspirating or decanting. Invert the plate and blot it against clean paper towels.
- Add 100 uL of HRP conjugate solution to each well. Incubate for 30 mins at 37°C.
- Aspirate each well and wash, repeating the process five times for a total of three washes. Refer to step2.
- Add 100 uL of Substrate Solution to each well. Incubate for 10 minutes at 37°C. Protect from light.
- Add 50 uL of Stop Solution to each well. If color change does not appear uniform, gently tap the plate to ensure thorough mixing.
- Determine the optical density of each well within 15 mins, using a microplate reader set to 450 nm.
- The kit should not be used beyond the expiration date on the kit label. Do not mix or substitute reagents with those from other lots or sources. When mixing or reconstituting protein solutions, always avoid foaming.
- It is recommended that no more than 32 wells be used for each assay run if manual pipetting is used since pipetting of all standards, specimens and controls should be completed within 5 minutes. A full plate of 96 wells may be used if automated pipetting is available.
- If samples generate values higher than the highest standard, further dilute the samples with the Assay Diluent and repeat the assay. Any variation in standard diluent, operator, pipetting technique, washing technique, incubation time or temperature, and kit age can cause variation in binding.
- The wash procedure is critical. Insufficient washing will result in poor precision and falsely elevated absorbance readings. To ensure accurate results, proper adhesion of plate sealers during incubation steps is necessary.
- This assay is designed to eliminate interference by soluble receptors, ligands, binding proteins, and other factors present in biological samples. To avoid cross-contamination, change pipette tips between additions of each standard level, between sample additions, and between reagent additions. Also, use separate reservoirs for each reagent.
- Duplication of all standards and specimens, although not required, is recommended.
- Do not substitute reagents from one kit lot to another. Standard, conjugate a microtiter plates are matched for optimal performance. Use only the reagents supplied by manufacturer.
Calculation of results
Average the duplicate readings for each calibrator, control, and sample and subtract the average zero standard optical density. Create a calibration curve by reducing the data using computer software capable of generating a four parameter logistic (4-PL) curve-fit or liner curve. As an alternative, construct a calibration curve by plotting the mean absorbance for calibrator on the y-axis against the concentration on the x-axis and draw a best fit curve through the points on the graph. The data may be linearized by plotting the log of the PSA concentrations versus the log of the O.D. and the best fit line can be determined by regression analysis. This procedure will produce an adequate but less precise fit of the data. If samples have been diluted, the concentration read from the standard curve must be multiplied by the dilution factor.
This assay recognizes recombinant and natural human PSA. No significant cross-reactivity or interference was observed.
Sensitivity The minimum detectable dose of human PSA is typically less than 0.1 ng/ml.
Detection Range: 4-50 ng/ml..
Storage of test kits and instrumentation
- Unopened test kits should be stored at 2-8°C upon receipt and the microtiter plate should be kept in a sealed bag with desiccants to minimize exposure to damp air. The test kit may be used throughout the expiration date of the kit (six months from the date of manufacture). Refer to the package label for the expiration date. Opened test kits will remain stable until the expiring date shown, provided it is stored as prescribed above.
- Do not remove microtiter plate from the storage bag until needed. Unused strips should be stored at 2-8°C in their pouch with the desiccant provided.
- A microtiter plate reader with a bandwidth of 10nm or less and an optical density range of 0-3 OD or greater at 405nm wavelength is acceptable for use in absorbance measurement.
- Substrate Solution is easily contaminated. If bluish prior to use, do not use.
Limitations of the procedure
FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY. NOT FOR USE IN DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES.